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MACHINE TOOLS OPERATIONS & CONTROLLING METHODS USED IN COMPONENTS DESIGNS

 

Machine tools are the basic aspect of every industrial production system. Almost every industry have one or more machine tools for varieties of tasks. Machine tools could be lathe, mills, shapers, and industrial robots, etc.

In every aspect of such machine, there are parts and components which perform various tasks to make-up the overall expectations of the machine. The idea is to understand how these parts and components operate and the control mechanisms available for the operations;

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At basic level, there are four methods available for the control of such machine components which can still be applied to modern robotic engineering. Such includes:

HYDRAULIC CONTROL

PNEUMATIC CONTROL

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MEACHANICAL CONTROL

ELECTRONIC CONTROL

  1. HYDRAULIC CONTROL: it is used widely to obtain infinity variable roles of rectilinear motion in machines tools. It includes pump, a distributing device and operating cylinder with piston rod.

The characteristic features of hydraulic used in the operation and control of machine tools are:

  • There is variable speed arrangement.
  • The machine is safeguarded against breakdown and wear is minimized because all parts work under good conditions in the transmission medium all the mechanical parts like gears, screw, racks, and clinches are eliminated.
  • It is characterized with shock less motion.
  • The driving motion is achieved by the variable speed gear consisting of two parts, namely by a pump and cylinder having a piston driven by oil circulated from the pump and controlled by piping and valve.
  • It is possible to transverse hydraulically operated slide or table against a positive stop with the assurance that the pressure exceeds a predetermined valve.
  • It is simple and efficient to control both manually and hydraulically.
  • Faster reverse and acceleration rates are possible because of less inertis and cushioning effect of the fluid.
  • There is automatic protection against overload.
  • Safety is ensured by relief valve.
  • There is lower power consumption which varies automatically to meet resistance.
  • It is silent in operation with automatic lubrication by the transmission oil.

LIMITATIONS OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM

  1. The occurrence of slip in hydraulic drives may have the advantage of increasing the life of the cutting tools, it has a disadvantage where it is desired to maintain a uniform rate of transducers.
  2. A hydraulic drive cannot be employed in cases where an accurate relation must be maintained between two coordinated motions such as is required when cutting screw thread.
  3. Effect of the temperature on the oil viscosity.

Diagram of Hydraulic system

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B) PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM: in pneumatic control, a compressed air will be made available to work with rather in-expensive equipment. Air is admitted with the oil tank at a pressure of 0.4 to 0.5N/mm. consequently, oil will pass through the pipeline and check valve to the left or the right end of the cylinder causing the cylinder to be released into the atmosphere. When the tool slide is to be advanced to the work, a three-way valve air is admitted to the right, not the oil tank.

Diagram of pneumaric system

 

C) MECHANICAL CONTROL: in mechanical drives, the transmission elements will depend upon the type of conversion needed between the drive shaft and driven shaft.

The differences between a Hydraulic system, Hydrostatic, and Hydrodynamic.

  1. In Hydrostatic systems: it takes the mechanical output of an engine or electric motor and convert it to a hydraulic source of power using a hydraulic pump.
  2. In Hydrodynamics system: it is the study of fluids in motion. The study is based upon the hydrodynamics in it which includes the study of a closed conduit and open-channel flow and the calculation of forces.
  3. In the hydraulic system: hydraulic controlled circuit drives with a power rating of 0.4kw are economically sound, a hydraulic drive is advisable for developing high torques and pulling forces. The application of hydraulic drive in copy system “copy turning to mill” and flow forming lattices is also of great importance. The variable capacity fluid pump with one direction of flow in rum by an electric motor. The pressurized oil is used to rotate variable capacity in hydraulic motors and is utilized to have a rotating motion of the operative unit of the machine tool.

Originally posted 2018-10-06 11:43:13.

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