THE ENGINE FEATURES
Most are powered by a known as the internal (IC) that burns a mixture of petrol and air. The mixture is burned in a chamber within a cylinder above a .
When it burns, the mixture expands rapidly and the pressure that this exerts on the top of the forces it down the cylinder. The underside of the is connected by a rod known as a connecting to a and the arrangement of the two allows the downward path of the to be transformed into rotary of the shaft from the reciprocating motion to rotating motion. Based on the configurations of the , the power in the is transmitted to the wheels that drive the through the or torque converter, , and final drive.
Inlet and exhaust valves at the top of the cylinder control the entry of the petrol/air mixture and the exit of the burned gases into the exhaust system. The valves are operated by eccentric lobes on a camshaft which is driven from the crankshaft. The mixture is ignited in the chamber by a spark . The high-voltage or high current necessary to produce a spark is generated within a separate ignition system and usually fed to each cylinder as required by a distributor, normally driven by the camshaft.
HOW START THEIR OF FUEL
To start the , it must be rotated. This is done electrically by a starter motor which rotates the , usually by engaging a small pinion with the teeth around the outer edge of a flywheel, bolted to the end of the . Besides providing a means of starting the , the flywheel smooths out the power pulses from the pistons and allow the to turn relatively smooth.
Whenever the is being rotated by the starter, the up and down of the pistons sucks mixture of air and fuel into the cylinders ( chamber) repeatedly until the chamber is filled with enough volume of air-fuel mixture such that when the ignition starter is switched off, the sparks from the plugs will ignite the mixture in the chamber in that case, begins immediately causing the to start running.
COMPONENTS MAKING THE LAST LONGER AND OPERATE WITHOUT FAILURE
To ensure steady operation and prolonged life, the are equipped with the and lubricating system.
The of could be air cooling or water cooling. The air cooling method will not use water inside the rather the external surroundings of the chambers are made to have fins of uniformly spaced metal to allow for easy dispersing of heat generated from the combustions to the environment and the atmospheric of the surrounding will help to keep the chamber at moderate .
The water cooling method had been the most widely used for the and seems to be the most effective for , in such method, holes of water channel are created inside the body of the especially within the chamber such that the two exit ports of the will be fixed to the inlet and outlet ports of a such that when the is in operation the water will be re-cycling from the into the continuously while an external fan will help in cooling the coming from the before it can go back again from the inlet port.
The lubrication system works almost similar to the cooling system but its major function is restricted to the interior of the engine only. While water and air cool the engine, the lubrication system makes the engine to run smoothly with less wear and tear. Though the lubrication system does offer some level of , its basic function is to help reduce the wear and tear of the moving parts.
THE COMPONENTS THAT TRANSMIT THE POWER FROM THE
The components that transmit the power are the pistons, connecting rods, and and they are hidden inside the cylinder , and the outside of the and cylinder head carries a number of vital ancillary components.
The components include; the inlet and exhaust manifolds, which carry fuel and air to the cylinders and pipe exhaust out, , distributor, starter motor, generator and usually the petrol pump. The positions of these components vary a little depending on the layout of the . Some of the outside components are hard to find. The is usually beneath a big air filter and the may be half buried in a heat box that directs warm air to the .
Also, there will be a number of small diameter hoses. Besides taking water to and from the interior heater, hoses often feed water from the cylinder to a jacket around the inlet manifold where warmth helps to vaporize the mixture. They also pipe to the inlet manifold.
However, at the external parts of the , the ends of the is usually connected to flywheel, , or any drive mechanism where the power can be put into use for any purpose it is meant for. In the case of the , the power will be directed into the driving mechanism of the .
THE HEAVY-METAL PARTS OF THE
Because of substantial temperatures and forces generated within the , components in direct contact with the loads must be extremely rigid and very strong to withstand the severe environment in the . When it comes to parts and assemblies in the , three major assemblies can be found for the mentioned purpose and they are:
THE CYLINDER HEAD
The cylinder head contains chambers, the valves (usually two in each cylinder), spark plugs, the springs that close the valves and the that opens them and the inlet and exhaust ports.
The cylinder contains cylinders and houses the , pistons and connecting rods.it may also carry the camshaft but on some , it can be mounted above the cylinder head and where this is done, the is known as an overhead camshaft (OHC.). in water-cooled , both the cylinder and cylinder head contain passages through which cooling water circulates.
The crankshaft assembly includes the , connecting rods, and the . The shaft is carried in main bearings mounted between the cylinders at the bottom of the cylinder . At one end of the is the flywheel. At the base of the , a pressed steel or cast aluminum sump provides a reservoir for lubricating oil. At the top, a cover keeps in the oil that lubricates the valves and, on modern , provides a seal against atmospheric air.
Originally posted 2018-08-02 08:40:14.
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