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TYPES OF ELECTRIC WIRING IN AUTOMOBILES AND HOW TO TRACE FAULTS IN THEM

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Automobile manufacturers use wires of different colors for the different circuit so that defective circuit could be easily located hence, in supplying electricity to different units, different types of electric wires are used. If these wires are left hanging there is every likelihood of short-circuiting and even fire may break out. To avoid all these in automobiles, all the wires are grouped together, cotton-braided and dipped to the chassis or body. This is known as the wiring harness. While crippling the wire harness, care should be taken the to avoid fixing up the harness near the exhaust pipe of fuel line.

TYPES OF ELECTRIC WIRING FOR AUTOMOBILES

To light any bulb or make any electric unit work, connecting one positive wire and one negative wire along a part is the normal method. It is a practice commonly seen in house wiring. When it comes to automobile wiring, the process seems the same. Two wires will be needed which are the positive and the negative wires and they are connected in two ways in the automobiles; such connection systems are listed below:

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EARTH RETURN SYSTEM

The negative terminal of a battery is earthed to the body or chassis which is made of metal. As we know, metal is a good conductor of electricity. Only wire is taken from the unit via switch and negative terminal of that unit is earthed, in that way; one complete of wire is saved. Due to the saving of electric wire, earth return system is used in almost all present-day vehicles.

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DOUBLE POLE SYSTEM

In this system, two wires that are the positive wire and the negative wire are taken from the battery to every unit. The system of wiring is used only in costly vehicles and is compulsory for vehicles which are used for carrying explosives, petrol or oil tanker and in military vehicles.

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TYPES OF WIRES FOR CARCAR WIRING

When it comes to automobile wiring, two types of wires are used and they are:

  1. THE COTTON BRAIDED WIRES: for the copper brand, rubber or plastic is molded on top of it, cotton braided and then varnished to give insulation. These wires being costly are not much used.
  2. THE P.V.C. WIRES: for the copper brand, the plastic is molded as its insulation. It is cheap and easier to manufacture, hence; it is used commonly than the cotton braided wires.

GRADES OF WIRES & WIRE CONNECTIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE WIRING

Wires used in automobiles are grades that are, thin or thick wires according to electric load they have to carry. Manufacturers usually supply in the wiring diagram. The size of wire used for each circuit such as 14/.010 which means that this particular wire consists of 14 wires each having a diameter of .010”.

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While replacing new wires, always use the correct grade of wire. In the case you used a thinner wire than the required size, firstly it will not carry the expected load, secondly; light illumination intensity will be affected and thirdly, the wire is likely going to heat up and melt the insulation leading to electrical shocks because of the overloading in it. The last condition of the wire could lead to a fire outbreak in any car.

In the same way, if you use thicker wire than the required size, it will increase the resistance and increase the total cost of the wiring.

Based on frequently used sizes of wires used for automobile wiring, the following grades of wires are available for such use:

  1. Wires for the self-starter to switch – 6mm 35/.12 for 12 volts and 8mm 65/.12 for 24 volt
  2. Headlight and tail light circuit -- 4mm 14/.12 for 12 volts  and  6mm 35/.12 for 24 volts
  3. Roof light, brake light, indicator light – 4mm 14/.12 for 12 volts
  4. Battery cable 61 wire 21 gauge
  5. High tension cable 19/.020

To make wire connection, remove the wire insulation by ½ inch, solder thimble on it and tighten the thimble with the help of screw nut or bolt. In the case of thimble and solder is not available, twist the wires to make a ring, put a cup washer and tighten with the fastener. Note; under no case, wire connections should be kept loose.

 

 

 

 

Originally posted 2018-08-01 13:46:23.

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