is a general term used in describing any capable of flying in the air. The term does not give regard to the design and sizes of the provided it made successful freight to the air. Some of this category had been referred to as air vehicles like the new EHANG flying vehicle.
The , , , airships, , , modern flying vehicles and jet fighters, etc. are all under the category of the term “AIRCRAFTS”. By definition, an is a carefully designed and produced to fly in the air and can be controlled, action which is possible by being able to overcome the gravitational resistance that exists on the earth surfaces and the atmosphere which is estimated to equal 9.8m/s2, the gain support from their and/or air to counter gravity through static lift or dynamic lift of airfoil.
The overcoming of the gravitational which is also called gravity is not an easy task since it exists to exact a pulling down effect on the earth surfaces, thereby making anything that goes up from the earth surfaces to comeback to it. The gravitation had been the major factor that made it impossible for any object that flies into the air to stay there because of the opposing it exacts on the object, hence objects projected into the air will surely come down except there is a that can overcome the gravity in it. This is the principle the birds use.
All the categories of can fly only when gravity has been overcome and other unseen forces such as the heavy wind storms in the air, etc. will be put into consideration when designing an which is why must have enough to overcome any resistance to its in the air.
All the aircrafts categories have their own way of overcoming air resistance and the gravitational based essentially on the aircrafts’ design and its propelling . are one of the first categories of aircrafts that have existed from the history of flying , though not propelled by an , the balloon was lifted up from the ground and controlled in the air through the injection of in them or gases that have less density or lightweight than the atmospheric air. Based on the discovery that and some like helium, , and argon has lower density and weight than atmospheric air, the filled with any of such content was found to lift up from the ground and their control became addition or reduction of the or quantity in the balloon while the forward and backward is made possible through wind direction.
Besides the balloon , other that had been existing afterward used a mechanized means to overcome the gravity and air resistance. The good example is the and , the first uses wings with the or mechanized to slide over the air resistance, while the latter uses direct upthrust to lift itself up against the gravitational and moves in the air through the opposing created by the propelling . The action of these two categories of had been fundamental in the development of every other that is existing today. Sliding through the air with a streamlined body or wings assisted with a propelling or or moving upward and moving in any direction in the air based on the power which provides enough upthrust to overcome any air resistance and gravity, had been the working principles of .
HISTORY OF AIRCRAFTS
The started over two thousand years ago ranging from experimental kites to human pedaled air bicycles, fixing of wings by mountain climbers and jumpers to the modern day supersonic , and , etc. The early development started hundreds of years BC when China became known for flying Kites. In the 15th century, Leonardo da Vinci made several meant to have possible flying objects but he did not produce any of the designed objects.
The discovery of in the 18th century made the first human-made balloon to be possible, the balloon was called . Within that time, the hot-air balloon was also discovered.
These two were in use for freight purposes for years but later redesigned to appear like the modern for air gliding or sliding effect which led to of the shape an invention known today as airships. Later in the 1930s, a new design of known as the flying boats were invented. propellers, hot-air, and light gases are the the new of the early were using some have the fixed in shaped together.
The Second World War brought the existence of balloon to its less use and less popularity after the invention of jet and super which can power heavier , the invention changed the aviation method of using to the modern method of speed in the form of and . and dominated the technologies used in fighting the Second World War for the purpose of the rescue operation, air strikes, launching of missiles and other missions.
TYPES OF AIRCRAFTS
may have the following categories based on their method of operation and which are:
BALLOON : all the aircrafts using the balloon and powered by , gases or can be classified in this category. Early flying , and balloon-airplanes belong to this category.
: can be referred to as static lift . They have the ability to fly into the air without wings and design rather their blades rotation will provide the needed thrust for lifting and other movements in the air. Under the two principles that aircrafts use for lifting and flying in the air which is dynamic lifting and static lifting, all the flying using the static lifting method can be referred to as helicopter, for example the small called was also referred to as because it has four rotors that provide static lifting.
: airplane can also be called aeroplane or plane the name refers to all the aircraft that can fly into the air using a dynamic lift method. The airplanes are known to have wings which help them to move upward once they start running forward with speed on a smooth ground, the adjustment and flexibilities in the tail wings and main wings at the center will provide control of the airplane helping them to change their direction of freight to any desired location. The engine or engines use to propel the airplanes forward could be internal combustion engines, electric motors, and jet , etc. the choice of the will be based on the size of the and the intended speed.
: this is a special type of which does not use or rather the rocket operates with a special known as the rocket . It is a kind of explosion method of providing thrust. Rocket or attached to the entire body called rocket will use a static lifting method to lift the rocket from the ground with extreme explosive . The rocket with the principle of a continuous explosion of gases passing through nozzles to build up pressures, the and explosion system occurs very fast that the time intervals become unnoticeable. do not use wings like the , and they do not use rotating blades like the but they have round body features to give them less air resistance. This type of has dominated the in the and the of some in the world, because of their known speed in . The rocket has been said to more effectively in the than in the atmosphere. The modern missiles and their launching are made possible through the . Modern and super-fast were built with rocket .
COMPARISON BETWEEN AND
- The are known for speed and ability to carry heavy loads into the air with fewer momentum fixed on them, unlike the which require large momentum like or which will also have extreme speed.
- Airplanes have wings for lifting and control some models have the engines attached to the wings or fixed at the front of the bot use their for lifting and the blades adjustment provide the control, their are usually fixed to face upward creating enough for the blade to rotate and provide the thrust needed.
- are streamlined to slide in the air helping their weight to be sustained by the wings and body shape the two provides very low air resistance to the . While do not use wings or feature to sustain their weight or slide in the air.
- If a clash or an failure occurs in the , it will fall down through a slow and steady deceleration in a projectile method, while in the case of helicopter it will fall down directly from the up.
- Helicopter lands in a helipad which is small and easy to set up and can also land in any other place which made it useful for , private uses, and monitoring jobs. While will need a landing and taking off which needs to be smooth and long like the airports but small had been seen to land and take off in places like the football fields and less busy tared roads.
HOW DOES AIRCRAFTS ? (THE WORKING PRINCIPLES OF )
had been said in the introduction and is based on the fact that any capable of overcoming gravitational known as the of gravity usually rated theoretically as 9.8m/S2 can fly in the air. The way a achieved that is not a problem but the fact remains that it must overcome gravity to be able to be in the air.
This implies that any built for the purpose of flying in the air and is not able to achieve that has not overcome gravitational . Overcoming the has no specification of size, design, or shape of the rather it all go down to theoretical calculations in regard to the producer’s size of , shape, and the overall design. Small may not be able to fly or be sustained in the air while big may achieve that, it is a matter of calculations and proper designing.
AIRCRAFTS DESIGN CONSIDERATION AND MANUFACTURING PROCESS
- When planning to produce an there are many considerations in regard to the design, type of the and the intended use, etc.
- The production of aircraft will start from paper works in the form of drawings to all the calculations needed.
- The data obtained from the calculations are used to decide the size and type of to be used.
- The calculations will also provide the possible weight the should have and the maximum loads it can carry and such will be used to determine the kind of material to be uses in its body and skeletons and the supposed weight.
- Calculations will also reveal if the intended shape can be used or if will be needed, bearing in mind that good design means less size of the and more efficient .
- The intended use of the will determine if it can be a helicopter, , rocket, or balloon, it is a serious consideration.
- All the listed considerations are focused on reducing cost and improving efficiency.
AIRCRAFTS CONTROL SYSTEMS
Control had been a major issue to the especially the modern super-fast . can be controlled through their blades’ raising and lowering mechanism and the tail blade helps to provide and quick turning.
can be controlled with their wings, the tail wings causes the airplanes’ directional turning, and the wide center wings will cause the lifting and landing operations of the .
Balloon aircrafts turning effects can be controlled by wind direction using a pedal design or solid frame and the adding or reducing of the gases or the in the balloon for lifting and lowering operations.
The control of the three types mentioned above seem to be easier when compared to the rocket control, rocket control system is gradual and slower than all the above three types due to the and the same is with other fast moving powered by jet and rocket .
SAFETY ASPECTS OF AIRCRAFTS
The balloon can be said to be the safest but they have the disadvantage of very low speed if issues develop the can slowly land itself somewhere without any serious injury to those in it.
The next safer can be the with the advantage of and wide wings they can move in the air with a sliding or gliding effect to overcome air resistance. The wings provide a substantial support in suspending the body in the air helping the to have a diving landing in the case of any failure or clash, such will help to reduce casualty to the people it if the aeroplane lands successfully in a plane ground but that will not be the case if it is heavy and landed with speed. Some small has in them usually located at the top which acts as an alternative for emergency or accidental landing.
The and all the super-fast as an improved technology used recently for important missions like the and strikes they are yet to make serious records regarding accidents and /mechanical failures. The considerations used when them had contributed to the low accident records. However, in the event of a foreseen accident, clash, or approaching bomb, etc. many of them have ejection technology that helps their pilots and crew to be ejected into the air with the parachutes attached to their body just by pressing a button, thus making them the safest category of .
Few accidents had been recorded so far in regard to and super-fast use by the and the institutes if compared to the number of accidents recorded for . Some of this type of has installed in them for a safe landing in the case of failure or lack of fuel.
The have a higher risk when compared to others which are based on their design and . As a static lift method aircrafts, they do not use wings which could aid in air resistance if any fall occur and most of them have no support. Except a helicopter falls inside a water, otherwise; it will leave serious casualty or fatality if it falls on a ground. Those who board do wear a personal or swimming vest if the helicopter will be flying over a water parts, to make emergency escape in the case of such incident, parachutes are used when the helicopter will be flying over the solid ground and helps to make a quick escape in the case of a fall.
PROBLEMS OF AIRCRAFTS
There are problems usually seen in and problems which affect the aircraft's operations especially the modern , , and such are listed below:
NOISE: , jet , and rocket do cause serious noise in any using them such that the pilots will always wear ear muff or ear .
CLASH: from the history of propelled aircrafts clash had been a major problem and the factors that can cause it are many ranging from lack of control by a pilot, windstorm, failure, to broken wing or parts. have a higher record of air clashes than others.
FATIGUE: fatigue in term is an invisible weakness of materials especially metals which will lead to internal invisible injuries and failure of the material that can only be discovered through methods like the radiographic and magnetic methods. Most plane clashes whose causes are unknown had been attributed to the fatigues in the plane which were not detected earlier. deteriorate from their external body to the internal components over time. Whenever fatigue is detected and found to be serious the is usually discharged from the duty to avoid the possibility of a clash if it goes into the air to face the air resistance.
FAILURE: No can have 100% safety in it, sometimes issues of failure can occur even when proper maintenance was done on it. failures may have contributed to over 50% of all the aircrafts clashes in the world.
LOSS OF SIGNAL: during freight aircrafts operators known as pilots need regular to obtain needed information as they are advancing to their destination and such information can include the road map, weather conditions, and landing authorization, etc. Loss of signal is a particular problem associated with and has the potential of creating conditions for a clash.
Predictions had been made on the possibility of future commercial becoming or programmable, which will make them become self-piloted . The research and development to this prediction have already begun.
Originally posted 2018-07-26 05:24:59.
A mechanical engineer and an NDT inspector by profession. However, I love blogging and sharing of knowledge for human intellectual development, especially relating to engineering fields, environment, and science trending updates. “Engineeringall.com” is a platform for any individual with similar passion, to do so; use the “PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE” page at the MENU to share your personal ideas, researched knowledge, or discovered incidents, etc.to those in the engineering & & the general online communities across the globe. If you love this post please share using the social buttons below.