The still remains the main component of future technologies. However, there are instances may malfunction or there may be other limitations found within the instrumentation job that simple manual technology could solve.
Taking a case study of an industrial water tank operation unit. It is a place in the industry where water is kept for the purpose of consumption whenever the need be. The issue of automation can be vital if the industry consumes a significant volume of water per day and does not want to have any shortage of water in its storage tank.
Due to the consumption method of most , water in the storage tank may be dropping unnoticeably except the meters in the control rooms are sensible enough to detect it. However, in some instances, only a clearly visible manual indicator can easily reveal the water drop in the storage tank before it could become clearly visible through the meters in the control room.
Nevertheless, there are cases, meters in the control room could fail. The possible cause of such incident could be as a result of poor instrumentation job, use of malfunctioning or defective instrumentation devices, among other issues.
The simplest way one can ensure accuracy is to ensure that both manual and reading system are in operation. However, using the simple does not make it a manual system since it still has the ability to actuate a pump originally at its idle state for water supply.
A simple instrumentation can be used to determine the level of water at any given time in the water tank irrespective of the size of the tank. Beyond just knowing the size, one can extend its usability to include the actuation of based on preset level of water. The diagram below explains more about the simple technique.
From the diagram,
A = WATER VOLUME IN THE STORAGE TANK
B = WALLS OF THE WATER STORAGE TANK (could be steel or concrete wall)
C = WATER TANK OPENING COVER
D= WATER SUPPLY INLET PIPES
E= WATER CONSUMPTION OUTLET
F= STEEL BALL (floating on water) USED FOR WATER LEVEL INDICATION
G= STEEL ROPE (connects the steel ball ‘F’ and the indicator arrow ‘J’)
H= SHORT STEEL BEAMS WITH ROLLERS
I= CALIBRATED GLASS (it provides that indicator slide on for reading purpose)
J= PLASTIC ARROWHEAD INDICATOR
If water is supplied up to the 100 percent volume of the water storage, the indicator arrow will move to its highest reading in the downward direction. In other words, the downward of the indicator is a sign of increasing water level in the storage tank, while the upward direction is an indication of decreasing water level in the tank. As the water level or volume of the water in the tank decreases, the indicator gradually moves upwards in proportion to the decrease in the water volume.
The steel ball “F” is made with thin steel sheet in a ball shape such that it can float on the water surface and be able to drag the steel rope “G” along with it as it goes downwards and upwards according to the water level in the tank.
The steel rope “G” respond to the action of the steel ball “F” by sliding itself on the rollers fixed at the steel beams “H” the action will result to the downward and upward of the indicator arrow “J” attached to the steel rope.
The indicator arrow along with the steel rope moves within the calibrated glass “I” where the actual water level in the tank can be taken by the operator.
In a situation where is the sole aim, the indication arrow can be fixed with a metallic object or may be made with metal while the lowest reading section of the calibrated glass will have a disconnected circuit arrangement for the pump. In that way, once water volume in the tank has dropped to its lowest level, as the indicator reaches the reading position in the calibrated glass it will form a complete/close circuit for current to through and cause the water supply pump system to start operation.
The water supply pump automation system can run for a preset time interval and then stop automatically. The time interval will be calculated to ensure it tarries with the volume of water that can fill the water tank according to the water pump capacity in flowrate.
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