HISTORY OF (UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES)
The history of /piloted otherwise known as the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) or the modern day name “” can be traced to its first use in the war on August 22, 1849, when the Austrians attacked the Italian city of Venice with loaded with explosives. The were known as Austrian and some of them were believed to have been launched from the Austrian ship called the VULCANO. Majority of the were able to reach their targeted destinations, while some were blown back by wind or have their directions changed due to the directions of wind. After the Austrians’ use of the , the technology started its journey of evolution to the present day super aerial vehicles known as .
However, the are an advancement of the existing technology, though seemed to be like the latest invention to many people; history has revealed that have been invented earlier even before the Golf war in 1991. which were initially referred to as “Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)” were built during the FIRST WORLD WAR to detect hidden and take videos from a particular height. They were being controlled through a radio system.
The British were among the initiators of the unmanned aerial vehicles and it began when their first were made in 1935, an initiative known as “radio-controlled aircrafts” which were used for training purposes. However earlier before that time, the US army in January 1918 started their first production of which were tested and made successful records but they were not able to be improved further before the war which they were intended to be used ended, since then the US had been seen as the leading figure in the production of because they had been producing several types of which were mostly used for target practices and training purposes after their first production.
THE USES OF
The wide use of started in the 20th century when the research precipitated many widely used technological innovations, the GPS system was enabled through the surveillance Satellites and defense researchers developed the information swapping protocol that was fundamental to the internet. were initially built for reconnaissance purposes and was not meant for public use until the para-military adoption of the technology and the modern commercialization of .
The first mass deployment of occurred in the Vietnam War and the use made it possible to discover the effectiveness of the technology, hence; its use for other applications began to spring up, examples were the use of the for research purposes, spying, and monitoring operations. It was during this period that other countries besides the Britain and U.S. began to explore the technology behind the . China and Japan were among the countries recorded to have built successful recently, but Israel, France, Germany and few other countries had earlier built theirs which were also found to be successful. The have been classified to be faster, bigger, equipped and sophisticated than the earlier made during the FIRST WORLD WAR, some have the ability to launch missiles in a précised targeted area. also have the ability to invade a particular zone with bombs for assaults, besides that; they can fly longer and higher than the early .
According to the publication made by an IWM Staff at iwm.org.uk, functions and uses have been listed to include; filming, delivery goods, taking photographs, search operations after a natural disaster, and the monitoring of climate changes. Besides the above uses, their popular and controversial uses are employed by the for reconnaissance, surveillance and target attacks.
The united states increased its and advanced their technology after the September 9, 2011 bomb attack with the aim of assisting their to cover areas their troops could not go during surveillance, besides that the also have the ability to carry out attacks when potential enemies are discovered. had earlier became central to the U.S. national security strategy which has increased from countering insurgency in the city to counterterrorism from skies. According to, Ian G. R. Shaw, (2014), “The Rise of the Predator Empire: Tracing the History of U.S. ”, the popular U.S. MQ-1 is a science fiction that came into reality.
“The MQ-1 Predator is perhaps the most well-known of all military drones used today. It has a wingspan of 55 feet, a length of 27 feet, and can reach speeds of up to 135mph. According to the U.S. Air Force, “The Predator system was designed in response to a Department of Defense requirement to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information combined with a "kill" capability to the warfighter.” Its deadly name conjures the images of a science-fiction dystopia where hover in the sky and exterminate humans on the ground. Of course, this is no longer science-fiction rather the made it a reality”. Meanwhile, a BBC publication dated on 1st January 2012 said that are used in situations where manned flight is considered risky or difficult. It said that the US had used successfully to carryout précised strike at the militants in Pakistan’s tribal areas.
The U.S. had recorded several successful uses of both for and other purposes and is rated to be the world leading the drone-manufacturing country. According to understanding empire, the U.S now has fleets of some eleven thousand and hundreds of them are weaponized.
The technology of has been adopted for the of commercial that can carry without onboard human supervision. Though not popular yet, the system is believed to become the future of the commercial airlines upon its perfection.
The introduction of quadcopters into the technology has made it more popular making the to come in various sizes even to the size of toys operating with batteries and/or solar system.
HOW (drones’ working principles)
They are remotely controlled vehicles working with radio waves, the operating principles of drones are based on wireless technology just like any other device using the radio waves and electromagnetic waves. The name unmanned aerial vehicles and drones came from these working principles which are based on the fact that they can be operated without having direct contact with them just as Telephones can receive calls and messages without direct contact the other phone or as wireless microphones can operate without direct wiring or cord. The principles which with had been existing but its improvement and rearrangement made it possible to be used in .
When a is to be operated, a control center or location is usually set up bearing the drone's controlling software or system either in the form of a system or mechanized hardware control system. Using the system, the will be made to fly, hover in the air and move in any direction to carry out the intended operation. Except otherwise stated, as a wireless system; have their limits of distance control that will exist between them and their control units. Israeli have been found to cover long distance control operations and some can stay in the air for about 20hours. Based on that, it is possible to have with very long-range wireless control.
Another principle that helped the drone's existence is the principle that made the normal and existing manned to fly successfully in the air. Without the principle and possibility of human-operated being in existence, can be just in the form of or other aspects of technology but not . The principle of weightlifting, staying and/or moving in the air against the of gravity which manned (piloted) uses and is made possible through the jet or the rotor propelled installed in the , that is the same principle that has been incorporated into the making it possible for them to fly as human-piloted does.
AND MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Israel being the manufacturer of the most advanced in the world has been able to make whose sizes and load capacities equal that of the commercial made for civilian use. A good example of such made by them is the “Heron TP Etan”, which costs an estimated $35 million. Taking a close look at such , one can see no real physical change in design to some of the existing commercial being piloted by humans.
In other words, and manufacturing process may not actually differ much to the design and manufacturing process of the manned (human-piloted) , except that the latter is operated by the humans while the first is . have wings, tails, or rotor propellers, streamlined bodies, , and control units, etc. these features can also be seen in but their sizes may differ according to the size of the .
Currently, there are thousands of in existence which will make it difficult for anyone to come up with a compiled list of all the in the world. The manufacturing of now has almost the same frequency or number to some models of automobiles ever since it became commercialized, for that reason; let's discuss the popular seen so far and their uses.
OQ-2 : This is the first made by Denny’s radio plane company in 1935 and sold to the United States , it was made at about fifteen thousand pieces and since then became part of the U.S. technology after using them during the World War. The OQ-3 became an extension of the OQ-2 and was made in 1945.
AQM-34 SERIES: these are series of models with similar appearance built by the Ryan company to the U.S. in the year 1952 and since had remained one of the most used and popular to be used by the U.S.
MQ-1 PREDATOR : formerly called the RQ-1 Predator was originally designed as an aircraft for intelligence-gathering, surveillance, identifying targets and reconnaissance, but the drone was improved in 2002 to carry two Hellfire II missiles which made them able to carry out air strikes at a range that is up to 8km i.e. 5 miles. The drone was later improved and advanced to the newest version called "THE REAPER" MQ-9 PREDATOR
HERMES 450 : Built by the British, the British army has used the Hermes 450 in Iraq and Afghanistan during the crises in the Middle East, the has also been used by the to checkmate availability of bombs on the roadsides ahead of their parades. This has been upgraded to bear the same feature of the modern U.S. MQ-9B PREDATOR known as “THE REAPER” which will be discussed soon.
MQ-9 PREDATOR (RAF) : This is made by the U.S. and called “THE REAPER” the has been viewed as one of the most advanced in the world, it is an advancement and improvement of the existing MQ-1B PREDATOR, both of the have thousands of for their effective operations, TV cameras for recording, intensifiers, radar, infra-red imaging for low-light conditions and laser for targeting purposes, among all; they can also be armed with missiles. Meanwhile, the MQ-9 Reaper has been conceived as a “Hunter-Killer” system because of its extreme accuracy in carrying out an attack and has the ability to carry “PAVEWAY II” and “GBU-12” bombs at the same time. It can operate at a speed of 370kph which is 230miles per hour and is actually a very , besides that it can also carry out attacks at ranges beyond 8km.
HERON TP EITAN : this is one of the world’s largest and most advanced model, made in Israel, it has a wingspan of 26meters which is the same size of the popular commercial passenger jet BOEING 737 and the can stay in the air for more than 20 hours reaching the altitude of 12,000 meters. The has been estimated to cost $35million and has the ability to carry out surveillance missions beyond Iran directly from Israel.-
TARANIS : The has its prototype displayed in July 2010 by the UK Ministry of Defense, an unmanned combat air vehicle which is designed to be able to fend off attacks on the British as well as perform the intelligence gathering, surveillance and strike roles like other . It is believed that the will become an improvement to the existing British’s HERMES 450 .
: This is the first of its kind, a modern model of drone bearing four rotors propeller, very small in size like about 2 feet in its square meter (almost the size of toys) and very stable in its operation. It is the first drone design that popularly became commercialized for civilians to use. The use of this four electric motors propelled drone has been seen in the movie industries, churches, public occasions, and research purposes. It is also called the Quadrotor helicopter or multirotor helicopter, driven by electric motors powered by rechargeable batteries and/or solar system. The has become very popular because of its affordability and easy operation technics. The technology behind this has led to the development of other electric and driverless flying vehicles such as the EHANG models of made recently.
Besides the above-mentioned types of , it is believed that many have not been included in this post because their data was not accessible or available when the research for the post was made or they are not popular as compared to the mentioned above.
PROBLEMS OF (UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES)
Early have more problems than the , the problems of the early include:
MAXIMUM ALTITUDE: The altitude a can attain is very important in its operation. The altitude to attain means the height it can reach in the air when it lifts up from the ground. The law of gravity will always exert a pulling-down or effect on all flying objects and that includes the , therefore; if the has more weight with a less powerful to propel it upward or forward it may be having difficulty to attain a very high altitude in the air. with maximum altitude are good for spying and silent operations since they may not be noticeable when flying across some aerial zones, therefore when equipped with super zooming cameras they can capture images and videos quickly from a far distance in the air.
FUELING SYSTEM: The problem of fueling the power system had been a serious issue, early were operating reciprocating that use fuels like that used by the manned , due to the quantity of fuel they can carry; the fuel tends to finish quickly thereby limiting the distance the would cover. have jet propelled system for speed freight, equipped with a sizeable quantity of fuel or built with rechargeable (for small ), solar system or the combination of the three systems thereby making the to become faster and can fly for hours in the air.
CONTROL DISTANCE: According to en.wikipedia.org, Edward M. Sorensen was the true inventor of a radio-controlled that could fly out of sight of its operator as was evidenced by his U.S. patents. His invention made it possible to know the operation of the as it lifts off the ground terminal, the other activities like climbing a hill, banking, directions and attaining an altitude, etc. can be from a distance. It is believed that if the invention was not made earlier by him, early could not be able to fly out of sight from their controlling unit.
IN THE AIR: Making the early to be stable in the air during wind storms was another task, most of them were propelled , and balloon, therefore, cannot overcome some wind resistance when in the air. malfunctioning usually develops whenever such incident occurs in some of them thereby making the early unusable under heavy wind against the intended direction the is meant to fly because of their vulnerability of attack by wind storms.
DURATION OF FREIGHT: The Israeli’s HERON TP EITAN has been classified as one of the in the world that can fly for over 20 hours, such time frame is enough to cover long distance or carry out any serious operation. The duration that any can fly in the air has been a major factor in classifying the usability and quality and it also determines its selling cost. Early were not able to have such long duration of freight in the air during their operations and that limited the uses of those earlier when compared to the modern types.
SIZE AND LOAD: The size of the MQ-2B and the HERMES 450 drones made it possible for the drones to carry missiles and be able to carry out air strikes. These types of drones are quite different from the small drones like the QUADROTOR meant for civilian uses. The early experienced the issue of sizes and load-bearing capacity which made them unable to have the sizes of the commercial like the modern Isreali HERON TP EITAN has. Those early cannot carry missiles and their load-bearing capacity is very low as compared to hundreds of modern .
COMPARISON BETWEEN AND
The modern technology and its fast evolutions have made it difficult for some people to understand the common difference between robots and drones. According to the www.ted.com series of post about , one can conclusively say that are sophisticated built with . Also the idahotv’s publication on the limitations of , the were referred to as human assisting built with to carry out certain duty on their own but such do not have the ability to think like humans rather their actions where programmed into them.
Drafting from the two descriptions given about by these writers, it can conclusively be said that are self-operating that can carry out their programmed function or functions without being like the . While need the programmed intelligence otherwise known as , operate with radio waves to obtain their signal before taking any action, the command issued to the through their controlling software or hardware will activate the necessary and parts of the to take the needed action while in the action had been programmed. Hence the action of can be canceled while that of cannot be canceled once it has started executing it.
CAN THE SCIENTISTS BUILD ?
A simple question with a simple answer which is “YES”. If can be installed into the existing they will automatically become . However, this advancement may have some technicality issues relating to how the program will be written such that the can be able to carry out the programmed duty or duties without mistakes. Notwithstanding, the advancement will also reduce the versatile functions and uses of the limiting them to only the function or duties programmed into them as an and such may be risky to use the for war or actions involving human lives.
Originally posted 2018-04-24 19:22:07.
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